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A brief history of Muscle Beach, the cradle of American fitness culture

Muscle Beach is not just a piece of beach near the Santa Monica Pier. Muscle Beach is the first popular outdoor theatre of gymnastics, athletics, fitness and, later, bodybuilding for all.

The original spirit of the equipped beach built in 1934 in Santa Monica is a mix of sociality, wellness and fun and is an example of a meeting place for those who loved uncompetitive exercise, healthy living and body care. The fact that its position was passing through a very busy pedestrian path, offered for the first time the right stage to the spectacular dimension of physical exercise.

The stages of Muscle Beach

The pier of Santa Monica
Can anyone say that the American fitness culture was born in Muscle Beach? Certainly, wellness, as we understand it today, has taken on a new meaning, positive and open to all, which still influences the culture of exercise around the world.

But how was Muscle Beach born? What are the fundamental stages of its development? Who were the sportspeople who frequented it? How much did it weigh on the world's fitness culture?

Let's have a deep dive into Muscle Beach in the following article:

  1. The construction of Muscle Beach
  2. The Second World War and the Golden Age
  3. Fitness pioneers
  4. From Santa Monica to Venice: the cult of the body
  5. The return to Santa Monica and the restoration
Boy cycling on the waterfront of Venice Beach in California

1. How was Muscle Beach born?

Without the Great Depression, there would not have been a Muscle Beach. During the early 1930s, with unemployment in the United States hovering around 25%, President Franklin D. Roosevelt promulgated the New Deal, employing unemployed workers in the construction of works for the community. Among these were outdoor exercise facilities areas like the one chosen in the south of  Santa Monica Pier for Muscle Beach.


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At first, it wasn't just a matter of muscles, but of fitness and fun. The focus of attention in the first decades, from the 30s to the 50s, of this playground on the beach of Santa Monica, was the acrobats. Young, strong men and women would jump, build spectacular human towers and throw at each other. Muscle Beach, a short film by director Joseph Strick, bears witness to this period. It captures the essence of this emerging subculture that exploded definitively at the end of the 1950s, celebrated both in the cinema and in everyday life.
The original world of Muscle Beach as read in an article by the Smithsonian Institute, was a solar universe, a place of cheerful optimism. The message is sent to the world that there was a connection between body and mind - that the body, in fact, could govern the mind.

Rings and parallels, yes. But also, table tennis tables and nets for playing ball or flywheel, for quieter games. Muscle Beach, in its pre-hypertrophic days, was mainly a meeting place for young people to practice, among other things, a rudimentary version of beach volleyball.
Muscle Beach is now frequented by young people who love outdoor exercise
On the other hand, the culture of the muscle in hypertrophy, at the time, was a practice not recommended by the doctors. It was feared that people might become muscle-bound and physically trapped by the size of their muscles, as told by the fitness pioneer and one of the first influencers of healthy living, Jack LaLanne, in an interview.

2. The transition from war to success in the 1950s

A major earthquake that struck the area in 1933 destroyed most of the indoor exercise facilities, leaving many athletes without a place to train and Muscle Beach served as the only gym in the area for a long time. From that moment and for reasons of force majeure, the sport-ludic dimension of the beach gave way to that of exercise and athleticism.
Used to train by military personnel stationed in Los Angeles, Muscle Beach completed its transition to a place suited to fitness once World War II ended, with heavier training by the standards of the time. It was at that time that it became a source of entertainment for the people of LA and beyond.

In those years, in fact, no professional sports team walked on the parquet of the city's buildings and Muscle Beach became the (free) place to appreciate the exploits of real sports champions.

A pic of Santa Monica taken from south of the area.
The Muscle Beach gave space to entertainment and athletic skills, but also created problems of public order, with large gatherings of bodybuilders and enthusiasts who were not appreciated for reasons of public order and decorum by the quiet and conservative coastal town of California.

3. Muscle Beach as a mecca for early fitness enthusiasts

The pioneers of American fitness all started from here, trying to prove their athletic value with tests sometimes at the physical limit. Jack LaLanne, for example, earned his fame by swimming from Alcatraz Island to the beach with his hands tied, or by performing 1,033 push-ups in 23 minutes live on television.
As it began, the story of the first phase of Muscle Beach ended at the label and without alerting anyone. One night in 1959, the city of Santa Monica removed the equipment from the beach, leaving bodybuilders and gymnasts without their structures. The quiet and conservative town did not appreciate the presence of that athletic and muscular humanity. For the citizens of Santa Monica, having a fitness landmark was not worth the cost of maintenance and supervision necessary to allow Muscle Beach to move forward.

4. Body Culture in Muscle Beach


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At the same time, the headquarters moved to another beach near Venice, where there was also an outdoor gym with weight equipment.

Attended by all the greatest body lovers, Muscle Beach in Venice became the mecca of weight training, made an icon (and stereotype) of films, books, and exhibitions. Ever since this beach and muscle tissue moved from Santa Monica to Venice, interest shifted from the playful to the aesthetic dimension of the body: despite the transfer, people never stopped coming.

On the contrary. Muscle Beach fully experienced the new hedonistic dimension, that of bodybuilding, three miles from the old location. And it was in Muscle Beach Venice that world-renowned bodybuilders such as Steve Reeves, Jack Dellinger, Dave Draper, Arnold Schwarzenegger found the right space and stage for their exercises over the years.

There are no shortcuts—everything is reps, reps, reps.

5. The return to Santa Monica in 1989 and children's fitness


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During the renovation of the Santa Monica Pier area in 1989, the city decided to restructure the area and give it a new fitness cut. The structures with bars and rings were rebuilt, but the main focus was on the children's fitness area, right next to the previous structures, transforming it into an area for families.  This was to avoid that an excessive concentration of bodybuilders alone could populate the area again.

But like all fairy tales, this fitness paradise also had its happy ending. In 1999, Santa Monica restored Muscle Beach as it was built in the early 1930s.

Pure: the performance line that trains strength in freedom

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Pure equipment gives athletes the freedom, versatility and challenge of free weights in a safe environment. Composed of Plate loaded machines, racks, weight lifting platforms and a wide range of benches and free weights, Pure promises extraordinary performance, a refined design and a truly complete range of products to equip your training area. In the Pure line products, workloads are distributed according to the trajectory of movement to produce optimal torque across the full range of motion.

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