Evaluation of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Football: Part II

Football is an intermittent, high-intensity sport that requires a high level of aerobic fitness as well as optimal anaerobic capabilities. In the first part of this extract, the importance of assessing aerobic capacity in team sports was highlighted. In addition, there was a discussion of laboratory and field measurement methods. In this second part, we will continue with the description of indirect methods of evaluation of cardiorespiratory fitness with attention to the game of football.

Yo-Yo

Footballer hits the ball in the rain
The Yo-Yo tests were developed in response to a need to assess the aerobic capacity of athletes. These tests include 2 x 20 m shuttle divided by 10 s of active recovery. In these tests, the rhythm is progressive and is dictated by an audio signal. In these tests, the footballers travel as many meters as possible until they can no longer maintain the speed imposed by the audio signals [1].

The Yo-Yo were developed as a result of the need to assess the aerobic capacity of athletes not only of football teams.

The Yo-Yo test level 1 starts at a lower speed (10 km / h) than the Yo-Yo test level 2 (13 km / h) with lower speed increments. Yo-Yo Level 1 assesses an individual's ability to perform aerobic exercises leading to maximum aerobic system activation while Yo-Yo Level 2 focuses on the ability to recover from a high intensity repeated exercise with a large anaerobic contribution alongside a significant aerobic component [1].
Intervention in tackle slipped
In medium-high level participants, Yo-Yo Level 1 typically lasts from 15 to 20 minutes, while Yo-Yo Level 2 can last from 5 to 15 minutes. As a result, Yo-Yo level 1 [2] may be more suitable for medium to low-level players, while the second variant for more trained athletes [1]. The Yo-Yo test level 1 shows a high correlation with different sports activities in young people [3] and adults [1]. In addition, it has been shown to be valid and reproducible, allowing you to discriminate skills and levels in a wide range of sports.

Hoff

The field tests described so far do not fully reflect the skills required in a football match [4]. They include running in a forward direction, excluding a different set of specific movements involved in the sport of football [1]. Moreover, most of the research on football field trials were carried out without a ball. Since the literature agrees that tests should include specific activities for football, the more specific activities for football undoubtedly include actions involving the conduct of the ball as part of the test.

Since the literature agrees that the tests should include specific activities for football, the more specific activities for football undoubtedly include actions involving the conduct of the ball as part of the test.

In the Hoff test, the player has to:

  • dribble the ball forward for 12 m
  • slalom between a series of cones placed on the field
  • continue dribbling for 7.5 m
  • jump 3, 30 cm high obstacles placed at 7 m from each other
  • make a change of direction of 90 degrees to the right
  • head towards a connect placed at 25.5 m
  • make changes of direction and then get to a small door that is 10 m away and go on for another 15 meters.
  • Once the player is at the end of the 15 m they make the last 90 degree turn, to return to the starting point to continue until the expiration of the 10 minutes.

The coach has the task of notifying the player when the test is both in the fifth minute and in the ninth minute. Five players can take the test at the same time, starting from a minute away from each other.

Player attempts a dribbling

Foote-Val

Foote-Val is an incremental, intermittent test based on the spatial organization of Léger's "20-m shuttle run" test [5] to include direction changes (180°). The purpose of this test is to determine a global index of football players, providing a clear idea of their level, including technical skills and physical characteristics. This test measures the VO2max under specific conditions and is influenced by many factors such as running economy, muscle skills, and technical skills of ball conduction.

The purpose of the Foote-Val is to determine a global index of football players, providing a clear idea of their level, including technical skills and physical characteristics.

To maintain the distance of 20 m, a slalom trajectory is drawn using plastic strips (0.5 m long and 1 cm thick) located 0.5 m from the center of the poles, so as not to interfere with the player or the ball. The path of this trajectory is intended to help the player to respect the time of a sound dictated. The last step completed by the player provides the Maximum Specific Aerobic Speed (MASS). It is important to be aware, however, that the test may not be accurate because the movement of the ball after hitting the plastic panel is not controlled.
Contrast between two players on the court
Therefore, the pace, direction, and distance of conducting with the ball will vary from player to player. In addition, the ball control of all players may not be equal, and the risk of losing the ball during the course is high among players with lower skill levels. Therefore, it may not be the most accurate test to examine the aerobic potential of players.
Football training with cones and stakes

Maximum Aerobic Power

This test can be performed on a motorized treadmill like Skillrun, starting at 8 km/h with speed increments of 1 km/h every minute. Immediately after the athlete has reached voluntary exhaustion, he should perform an active recovery lasting 3 minutes at a speed of 7 km/h. During each test, the treadmill is set with a slope of 1%. On the other hand, the field test alternative consists of a progressive and maximal test with a total distance of 80 m, traveled on a trajectory in the shape of a square of 20 m.

This test can be performed on a motorized treadmill like Skillrun, starting at 8 km/h with speed increments of 1 km/h every minute.

The speed of the test is determined by beeping sounds such as those of the Yo-Yo level 2 test [6], with an initial speed of 11.5 km and increments of 0.5 km / h every minute. In every corner of the route, there is a cone, which must be passed by the athlete at each acoustic signal. The test is always performed counterclockwise and stopped if the athlete does not reach the cones at vertices twice in a row at the time of the beep. The distance, maximum speed and total time of each subject are recorded and used for the final evaluation.

Carminatti's Test (T-CAR)

The Carminatti test - also called T-CAR - requires participants to perform repeated shuttle runs in phases of 5 intervals of 12 s work to 6 seconds recovery, progressively increasing the speed until voluntary exhaustion. Each phase of the test lasts 90 s.  The test protocol has an initial speed of 9 km/h over a running distance of 30 m (15 m outward and return). The running rhythm is dictated by an audio signal (beep).  The test ends when the participant fails to meet the time for two successive repetitions or following perception of inability on the part of the participant to cover more distance than that reached in the level.

The Carminatti test (T-CAR) requires participants to perform repeated shuttle runs of 5612 s, progressively increasing the speed until voluntary exhaustion.

The test can be used to assess aerobic fitness and to prescribe training for team sports players. It also provides information to assess changes in the intermittent high-intensity endurance during the competitive season in footballers.
Sources and bibliography
  1. Bangsbo J, Iaia FM, Krustrup P. The Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test: a useful tool for evaluation of physical performance in intermittent sports. Sports Med. 2008;38:37–51.
  2. Bangsbo J. The physiology of soccer with special reference to intense iintermittent exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavia. 1994;151(619):1–156.
  3. Castagna C, Impellizzeri F, Cecchini E, Rampinini E, Alvarez JC. Effects of intermittent-endurance fitness on match performance in young male soccer players. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(7):1954–9.
  4. Ali A, Williams C, Hulse M, Strudwick A, Reddin J, Howarth L, Eldred J, Hirst M, McGregor S. Reliability and validity of two tests of soccer skill. Journal of Sports Science. 2007;25(13):1461–70.
  5. Léger L, Lambert J. A maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test to predict VO2 max. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1982;49:1–12.
  6. Bangsbo J. Yo-Yo test. Ancona: Kells; 1996. p. 31.

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