Golfer's preparation - combining quality with training

Technogym's field of interest is wellness all round: from physical wellness to athletic preparation. Including athletic preparation of a golf player.

For many it is just a hobby, for others it is a full-fledged sports discipline. Big champions perform fantastic shots, with amazing precision and quality. This is possible not only for their perfect playing technique. They are supported by a physical and muscular structure proposedly trained.

In this editorial, we aim to explain when golf was born, how it changed during its history, what are the main rules and the strict etiquette required of all players. Finally, we would like to answer to the question: what are the skills a golfer should train?

Play the ball as it is. Play the field as it is. If you cannot do either thing just do what is right, but to do what is right you need to know the rules of golf. Golf's fundamental principle

Kinesis and Personal Line

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Golf in history

Golf is one of the most popular sports in the world, perhaps because it is suitable for men, women and children alike. However, the origin of the sport itself is not so certain.

The Romans practiced a similar game, named Paganica, commonly played in the countryside and by the legions at the borders of the empire.

Scotland is considered the birthplace of golf, whose birth is commonly believed to be around the first half of the XV century. Subsequently, it spread first in the British Isles then in the rest of the world. Nonetheless, in Holland there are documents that record the practice of a game called golf as early as 1297. The Scots started playing golf on links, which in their language are those strips of land by the sea, and then spread it to the rest of the world. The St. Andrews golf course near Edinburgh is recognised as the oldest existing golf course. Also in Scotland, in the mid 1700's, the first institutionalized clubs were born and it was here that the basic rules of the game were established.

Today, golf has over 70 million players and is one of the most popular sports in the world. Today, the United States of America has the largest number of courses as well as the largest number of practitioners. This is where the world's most important racing circuit takes place.

Golf’s rules

Golf requires calm, concentration and strong nerves. With these characteristics men and women, adults and the elderly can all practice it. It is also an excellent discipline for children, who will learn from the start to respect the rules and opponents. Golf is certainly an aggregating discipline; while courses revolve around structures such as clubs, the activity in itself revolves around lot of discipline and strict compliance with the rules. Golf is often played without the supervision of a referee.

Golf has long been, and still is, considered an activity for gentlemen and ladies. However, can it be defined as a sport?

It very well can, since it has all the characteristics to be one:

  • physical activity
  • Spirit of competition
  • rules to be observed

Being a golf player, however, is a state of mind both for the respect of the rules in view of fair play and for the concentration required throughout the course. Often, this concentration also becomes a way of approaching and dealing with one's own life. Thanks to practice, automation is created, routine movements are refined and confidence in one's own capabilities is improved.

Golf is an opportunity to improve yourself infinitely. To become a good golf player it is not enough to know the technique or to have a well-trained body, but it is necessary to practice it with continuity and passion.  Golf's magic – Giovanni Valentini

The rules of golf are a set of procedures and good practices to follow in order to play this sport correctly. The rules are written and administered by the United States Golf Association (USGA) for the United States and Mexico, by the Royal & Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews for the rest of the world.

Rules are supervised and updated every 4 years

Rules of golf are rather complicated when compared to other sports. Golf is practiced outdoor, close to nature and animals, the rules aim to empower the player even in these terms. In addition to the rules, golf also includes an important and indispensable code of conduct.


The best quality for a golf player. The asymmetry and repetitiveness of the gestures required from the golfer can wear out joints, muscles and tendons over time. That's why it is important to keep your body well trained and flexible. Regular stretching and joint mobility exercises at the end of the workout will greatly help the fluidity and softness of the athletic gesture.


With Flexability Technogym makes stretching measurable. Technogym's Flexability line works on the main muscle groups of the lower limbs, pelvis and trunk in the same movement. This will allow simultaneous elongation, reducing the overall duration of the exercise, but not its effectiveness.
The muscle stretches gradually with the intervention of the same body weight, for a more natural stretching. While stretching, it is possible to measure and see in real time the progress of muscle flexibility, thanks to a measurer that will help the user to remain motivated in achieving his goals.

The comfort and design make the Flexability line a solution suitable for all types of contexts, from domestic to professional.

Rule 1 of the rules states the purpose of the game: the Golf Game consists of playing a ball with a stick from the starting area to the hole with one or more rounds, performed in accordance with these rules.

There exist two major kinds of challenge:

  • Match Play: Two players compete in the pothole game. The point is awarded to the player who puts the ball into the hole with fewer shots.
  • Stroke Play: It is a hit based game. The winner is the competitor who runs the entire field in the least number of strokes.

1. Golf rules

The first rules of golf date back to 1744 and were produced in a competition organised by a Scottish club and included 13 points. Initially each place or golf club had its own precise and recognized rules. In 1952, the book of golf rules was published. The structure of the Regulation now provides for specific rules dedicated to particular sections of the game. In total, there are 34 rules divided into themes:

  • The game (1-3)
  • Sticks And Ball (4-5)
  • Player Responsibility (6-9)
  • Game Order (10)
  • Departure area (11)
  • Play the Ball (12-15)
  • The Green (16-17)
  • Moved, deflected or deformed ball (18-19)
  • Situations in which to remedy procedures (20-28)
  • Other forms of play (29-32)
  • Administration (33-34)

At the end of the regulations, there are three appendices, which regulate in detail the places, the equipment and the classification of players and fields.

The book of rules also includes parts dedicated to definitions and glossary of common use in golf and a section dedicated completely to the label to be maintained throughout the race and within the club.


You could write a dictionary with the terms used in a golf course. The main ones who can help curious and novices to better understand this world.

  • Tee - departure pitch. Also, the wooden nail with concave head that serves to support the golf ball at the first shot of each hole.
  • Putting Green - the destination area of the ball where the hole with the flag is located. Within this area, you can play only the putter.
  • Putt - shots where the ball rolls on the lawn without getting up from the ground.
  • Par - number of shots expected to close each hole.
  • Scratch - player with handicap 0 (zero).
  • Handicap - an advantage system developed to allow inexperienced players to compete on equal terms with the best. An experienced player has fewer shots available than an expert to close every hole.
  • Fairway - straight away. Extended area made up of grass mowed in order to make the trajectory of the ball more fluid.
  • Rough - very tall grass that complicates the path of the ball.
  • Caddie - boy serving the players. Brings the golf player's bag, can give advice on the shots to be made.
Rules' infringement equals to a penalty, whether it is made by a player or by his caddie. The most serious penalty provided by the regulations is disqualification and can be awarded if the game, fair play or other players are not respected.

The game of golf does not only require precision, it is precision. As in a complicated mosaic, each rule can imply many others. Golf's rules 2008-2011

In golf, each player is required to have a complete knowledge of the rules; it is in fact one of the few sports where the player is his own referee and thus must control himself. Most of the rules are practical instructions on how to behave in specific cases, while others are good rules to adopt to avoid wasting time.

2. Golf’s etiquette

In addition to the rules of practice, the game of golf is based on rules of conduct respectful of the opponent and the game itself.

These rules represent the essence of the sport, perpetuate the original atmosphere, when the nobles went to the club to relax and recreate.

These behavioural guidelines mainly concern such themes:

  • Safety: always make sure there are no obstacles or players along the trajectory before shooting. Before you perform a shot you should always shout the traditional warning: FORE!
  • Consideration for other players: It is forbidden to disturb or distract players during their turn.
  • Scores: You should record in motion as you head to the next starting area.
  • Readiness: Play quickly and keep up, avoiding delays and overlaps with the front group.
  • Lost ball: In this case each player has 5 minutes to search for the ball, to save time it is recommended to play a temporary ball. In the event that the next group is waiting it would be reasonable to give priority to the game.
  • Care of the field: each player is called to leave the field as he found it, taking care to reset any clods or damage caused by shoes.
  • Avoidance of unnecessary damage: It is strongly recommended not to behave in such a way as to damage the field or the environment. The rules governing the use of golf carts within the club should also be strictly observed.

3. Field and equipment

The golf course defines the area intended for the practice of this sport. There are no lines or gates to delimit the playing field. The main characteristic of this sport is in fact the complete immersion in nature.

A golf course consists of 9-hole or 18-hole courses. Each hole is at the end of a path that presents difficulties and obstacles of various kinds. A golf course cannot be standardized. Despite the elements that make it up are common to all, each golf course is unique.

The distance between the starting area and the hole can vary from 100 to 550 meters. For each hole, there is a number of estimated strokes necessary for reaching it, called par. This is exactly what gives the name and value to the path. There are therefore holes with par 3, par 4 or par 5. There are very few cases in which you can find a par 6: in these cases, the length of the course should be no less than 630 meters.


If the player uses exactly the number of shots expected to complete the hole, it is said that the hole has been covered in par. Otherwise:

  • Condor/triple eagle - four shots less
  • Albatross/Double Eagle - Three Shots Less
  • Eagle - two shots less
  • Birdie - one shot less
  • Bogey - one more shot
  • Double bogey - two more shots
  • Triple Bogey - Three Extra Shots
  • Quadruple bogey/4 over the par - four extra shots

And so on.

Each golf player may carry a maximum of 14 clubs in the bag. Each of these allows different strokes and distances depending on their ergonomics and conformation. In addition to this, the technical level and physical strength of the golfer will also be an important factor.

There are three main types of sticks:

  • Woods - used to play from the tee or fairway and ensure greater distances:
  • Irons - used for precision shots and medium to long distance shots:
  • Putters - are sticks with an almost null loft (angle between face and barrel), they serve mainly on the green to keep the ball close to the ground.

Then there are the new hybrid sticks. They combine precision with ease of shot execution. Finally the wedges, which are irons with a particularly wide angle that are used for shorter and more precise shots.


In general the sticks and the distances reached with them are:

  • Driver - from 250 to 300 meters approx.
  • Wood 3 - 200 meters
  • Wood 5 - 190 meters
  • Iron 3 - 165 meters
  • Iron 4 - 155 meters
  • Iron 5 - 145 meters
  • Iron 6 - 140 meters
  • Iron 7 - 130 meters
  • Iron 8 - 120 meters
  • Iron 9 - 110 meters
  • Pitching Wedge - 100 meters
  • Gap Wedge - 85 meters
  • Sand Wedge - 70 meters
  • Lob Wedge - 50 meters
  • Putter - use limited to the green

Golf is art in motion, where every shot requires creativity and strategy to get to the hole with the best solution, but in addition to creativity, you need technique and training to succeed. Dario Cusani

Athletic preparation of the golf player

When analysing a sporting gesture to assess its preparation, several aspects must be taken into account, including:

  • Genetic potential
  • Psychological factors
  • Sports technique
  • Physical condition

If little can be done to improve your genetics, the technical and physical factor can have enormous room for improvement. The physical condition in particular is what a sportsman should always work on and concern.

  • Resistance
  • Strength
  • Speed
  • Coordination skills

All these factors are fundamental to achieve good sports performance, whatever the sport.

Considering the size of a golf course and the movement of the ball during the shot, a golf player must necessarily have specific sports training. Aerobic exercises for walking along the course, anaerobic exercises for the execution of the shot.

Coordination and fast force are the key elements to work on.

Playing golf means performing technical and precise movements with strength and flexibility at the same time. Coordination and concentration go along with the list of skills required of a good player.


It is definitely not the most sought-after and sought-after physical quality in a golf player. Developing the ability to tolerate prolonged stress remains a basis on which to build other qualities.


A golf player should not aim to increase pure strength, as it would even be counterproductive. The development of muscle strength should be functional to the flexibility and sensitivity of the rotation of the body.

Oblique abdominals are essential to ensure that controlled and firm twist of the torso every golfer should have. With regard to the muscles of the arms instead, triceps and forearm are decisive for hitting the ball with a solid, controlled and powerful (when necessary) shot.

Trapeze, deltoids and rhomboids regarding the upper back are called into question when you carry the stick to the top at the end of the shot.

The bottom instead is crucial to the execution of the swing, fundamental blow in golf. Quadriceps and the posterior muscles of the thigh must be toned and strengthened.

Higher strength levels mean more power and precision in the shot and less tiredness at the end of the race. In golf in particular, greater power translates into greater shot speed. A good level of muscle training also allows greater prevention of injuries and protection from frequent trauma that may affect the back.

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