Scoliosis is defined as a lateral displacement of one or more vertebrae. It is accompanied by coronal deformity in which the spine curves or deviates laterally from the anatomical center with rotated centrum deformations. It is accompanied by a tilted head caused by unbalanced hips and distorted trunk, unbalanced neckline due to a tilted trunk, scapular winging and disparity of the pelvis and shoulder height.
Severe scoliosis can cause decreased muscle strength and flexibility as well as muscle rigidity and pain, even to the extent of a patient experiencing fatigue when sitting or standing for a prolonged duration, correlating with a decrease in cardiopulmonary functions. Moreover, spinal deformation changes the characteristics of muscles around the spine and decreases the number of muscle spindles. In an alternative study, 20 idiopathic scoliosis patients were assessed on their ability to balance while standing. When they compared the experimental group with the control group the experimental group showed a significant increase in balancing ability. Also 12 weeks of lower limb-strengthening training and gait pattern training was conducted with female scoliosis patients. It was identified that plantar pressure differentiation between left and right as well as body balancing ability improved significantly after training.
A study consisting of 57 participants with scoliosis, 43 patients were identified with a deformation between 10 and 20 degrees. The participants were randomly divided into a Wellness Ball exercise group and a resistance exercise group. Both groups completed 30 minutes of exercise each day, 5 times a week for 8 weeks. The aim of the study was to verify the quality of Wellness Ball exercise and resistance exercise on balancing abilities. To verify, the study measured weight distribution difference, sway area, sway length, sway speed, and limit of stability. In this study both forms of training improved balancing ability however, the Wellness Ball exercise seem to catalyze the result of improved adaptability in an unstable posture. Balancing ability also improved after the resistance exercise. In fact, shortened muscles were stretched and weaker muscle groups were developed by means of muscle strengthening exercises.
Back exercises for scoliosis attempt to restore balanced muscle tone in the back and promote healthy spinal curvatures, although the Scoliosis Research Society suggested that back exercises for scoliosis cannot prevent curve progression, but can help improve your core strength and provide you with symptomatic relief. Future studies should be conducted over a longer duration and with more participants. However, this study demonstrate that Wellness Ball exercises and resistance exercises can both improve a scoliosis patients balancing ability. Although resistance exercise was found to be the most effective method, both Wellness Ball and resistance exercise modalities are considered to be effective mediation for improvement.
Kim JJ, Song GB Park EC, Effects of Swiss ball exercise and resistance exercise on respiratory function and trunk control ability in patients with scoliosis, J Phys Ther Sci. 2015 Jun;27(6):1775-8.