On the contrary, Veblen shows that for leisure class exhibiting luxuries, even immaterial ones, has a precise social affirmation function. What kind of luxuries? Knowledge of dead languages, or the latest fashions for clothing, or the ability to appreciate some musical genres compared to others.
According to Veblen, the "peer-to-peer" struggle, more or less agitated, is also and above all played out in the field of positional consumption, which allows a subject to assert himself and "win" the recognition of the social sphere. Winning, we said: but at what price?
Let's move for a moment to the present: we see Veblen relive in hyper-personalisation, in the scissor that separates luxury goods and bespoke goods, when luxury is not enough: and everything becomes unique, custom, tailor made, handmade, tailored to the needs of the individual customer, who is more than comfortable willing to pay any price. Provided that the goods purchased contain in themselves the definitive positional value of uniqueness.
More than a century later Veblen this year, an essay by Raffaele Alberto Ventura entitled Theory of the Disadvantaged Class has been released.
What do you talk about? The defeat of part of the middle class of the thirty to forty year old Italians and the defeat of a society. Playing on the Cologne quotation of the title Ventura recounts how an entire generation is burning precious resources in professional aspirations that will almost never be realised.
The first resource consumed by the disadvantaged class is time, which is waste. Hoping irrationally that the ambitions finally become a profession, he finds himself at 40 years of age living in precariousness. As a logical consequence, the second resource eroded is the patrimony of families, accumulated in a more prosperous past economically and spent today on cultivating the illusory professional aspirations to which the educational system has become accustomed.
Unfortunately, however, the prestigious positions in the creative and most desirable sectors - publishing, journalism, the cultural industry in general - are limited, while the waste of resources and years underpaid to compete in occupying them are huge. A limitless supply of labour, even a talented workforce, is matched by minimal market demand. Once again, it's like playing at the casino: few win, many waste time and money chasing is an illusion.
That class has a name that looks like a United Nations abbreviation: UHNWI. These are the Ultra High Net Worth Individuals, whose personal assets exceed millions of dollars. There is a thriving investment consultancy industry for this wealthy über class, so there are plenty of reports where you can fish data.
How many are the ultra rich? There are 226,450 human beings with more than $30 million of personal wealth, the figure comes from the World Ultra Wealth Report 2017 of the consulting firm Wealth-X. Of these, 64,370 live in Europe and 5,530 in Italy, which in the case you are asking yourself is not then put in the rankings badly. It is in 10th place worldwide for ultra rich people living on the territory, just behind Switzerland, which, by common sense, we would imagine much more crowded with new Creso: in fact, it is. In Italy there are over 60 million people, Switzerland has a population of just 8.4 million.
But how did they get so rich?
If we look at the UHNWI pyramid in detail, we find that they are not all the same. At the base, for example, we find 108,610 individuals with assets between 30 and 50 million dollars. Enough to quietly renounce the thought of work for the rest of their days and for the days of several generations to come. Going up to the top of the pyramid, the atmosphere becomes rarefied and the mountains of money become K2, for the barely 3,803 human beings on planet Earth who have a heritage of between 500 million and one billion dollars; but there is an even more exclusive club.
That of billionaires in dollars. They are just 2,397. A precise number, 2,397: more or less the inhabitants of Cesana Brianza, a village in the province of Lecco that could comfortably welcome everyone. However, they would hardly choose that kind of accommodation.
Worldwide 87% of the ultra rich are men, 13% are women, with a good jump of average age: 62 for the former, 50 for the latter. Then, always about age. It will also be fun to be overwhelmingly rich at the age of sixty, but let's admit it; there is no competition, it's far better to be a young person or a teenager.
There is one thing that money as much as you strive for cannot afford us to buy: youth. And it is here that we enter the territory marked a long time ago by the "rich kids of Instagram". Exploded in the summer of 2012, a total avant-garde that then became a meme, TV series, imitated also by rich people who had nothing but ambitions; beautiful, beautiful, beautiful, rich, rich, rich, the RKOI were the first to openly manifest a lifestyle of class über-located now merged into a TV show at Riccanza. They did - and do - news, they generate media, and rightly so: there are not many millennials who can boast the title of Ultra High Net Worth Individuals, they are just 7,200.
Staying in the field of hobbies, an important place is played in elite sports; playing polo in the snow of St. Moritz is quite elitist and positioning? Probably yes. Another hybrid between hobbies and investment, aviation: that seems to always exert an unquestionable fascination, both for pleasure and for parallel investment to diversify. To make a name for yourself, Warren Buffett has invested in a private jet service that isn't exactly for everyone: it costs just over $6,000 per hour of flight time.
This was the case for Sir Elton John and photography.
It happens when capital and artistic sensitivity go hand in hand; and it is not so rare, considering that 6% of UHNWIs invested in art last year. They did it a bit for pleasure, a bit for investment. The shade between the two things is light, as soft as the colours of a Renoir in the shade of a Luxembourg vault.
Only that in this case, the money will never end.